In preparation for the next stage of this blog's Queens of England series, I'm posting a genealogy of the House of Plantagenet, structured around its kings - the two Henrys, two Richards, three Edwards and one deeply unfortunate John. Next week, I plan to post two articles - a review of Elena Maria Vidal's fantastic second novel, Madame Royale, a sequel to Trianon - followed by Chapter 5 of the Queens of England series, "How am I possible?": The Life of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France and Queen of England.
The royal family listed below, who ruled England from 1154 until 1399, are referred to by the name "Plantagenet," although it is generally accepted that they were not commonly known by that name until several centuries after their demise. At the time, they were more usually referred to as the House of Anjou or the Angevins, as a reference to the ancestral homeland of Henry II's father, Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. However, since it is by the name of Plantagenet that they are more frequently referenced in later histories and in most of today's sources, I have chosen to stick with that for clarity's sake. It was an immense and fascinating period in British history, in which Ireland and then Wales were not only brought into the commonwealth for the first time, but the full and recognisable splendour and horror of the English Middle Ages was unfurled under a succession of larger-than-life monarchs and their brides.
Given the paucity of medieval records, I should also like to point out that several of these genealogies listed below may be "inaccurate" to some people, in that I have had to make educated guesses based on my own assumptions about which of the sources are most likely to be correct.
Here follows a genealogy of the Royal House of Plantagenet ...
(Reigned December 19th, 1154 - July 6th, 1189)
Sometimes known as "Henry FitzEmpress," "Henry Plantagenet," or "Henry Curtmantle"
It was during King Henry's reign that Ireland was first added to the monarchy's commonwealth. Legal alterations to Ireland's position within the monarchy were subsequently made in 1494, 1541, 1800 and 1921.
Son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and Maud, Dowager Holy Roman Empress and "Lady of the English"
Pre-regnal titles: Count of Touraine and Count of Maine (1151), Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou (1151) and Duke of Aquitaine suo uxoris (1152)
Born in Le Mans, Anjou, on March 5th, 1133
Died at the Château de Chinon on July 6th, 1189
Buried at Fontevrault Abbey, France
Henry II was married, whilst still Duke of Normandy, at Poitiers Cathedral, France, on May 18th 1152, to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, daughter of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, and his wife, Eleanor de la Rochefoucauld. Prior to this marriage, Eleanor had been Queen of France by virtue of her marriage to Louis VII, King of France, with whom she had issue. The marriage ended in divorce. Queen Eleanor was born in the Aquitaine, possibly at the Palais d'Ombriere in Bordeaux, in approximately 1121 and she died of natural causes at Fontevrault Abbey on April 1st, 1204, where she was subsequently buried.
Issue of the Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine: -
1. WILLIAM, Count of Poitiers (1153 - 1156)
2. HENRY, the so-called "Young King" (1155 - 1183). He married Marguerite of France, later Queen-consort of Hungary, and had issue.
3. MATILDA, Duchess of Saxony (1156 - 1189). She married Heinrich the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria, and had issue.
4. RICHARD I, King of England (1157 - 1199). He married Berengaria of Navarre.
5. GEOFFREY, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond (1158 - 1186). He married Constance of Brittany and had issue.
6. ELEANOR, Queen of Castile (1161 - 1214). She married Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, and had issue, including the future queen-consorts of León, France, Aragon and Portugal, and two future rulers of Castile itself.
7. JOAN, Queen of Sicily (1165 - 1199). She married firstly to William the Good, King of Sicily, and had issue. After King William's death, Joan married secondly to Raymond VI, Comte de Toulouse, and also had issue. She later took the veil as a nun at Fontevrault Abbey.
8. JOHN, King of England (1166 - 1216). He married firstly to Isobel, Countess of Gloucester, and after their divorce to Isabelle of Angoulême, by whom he had issue.
Issue of King Henry's affair with a prostitute called Ikenai: -
i. Geoffrey, Archbishop of York (died 1212)
ii. Peter (born and died young)
Issue of King Henry's affair with Lady Nesta Blewer: -
iii. Morgan, Bishop of Durham
Issue of King Henry's affairs with various unknown women: -
iv. William, Earl of Salisbury (died 1226). He married Lady Ela Fitzpatrick and had issue.
v. Matilda, Abbess of Barking (died 1202)
vi. Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln (died 1235)
vii. Richard (born and died young)
HENRY II was succeeded by his third son, RICHARD I.
(Reigned July 6th, 1189 - April 6th, 1199)
Sometimes known as "Richard the Lionheart"
Son of Henry II, King of England, and his queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine
Pre-regnal titles: Duke of Aquitaine (1172)
Born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, on September 8th, 1157
Died on military campaign at the siege of Chalus in France on April 6th, 1199
Buried at Fontevrault Abbey in France
Richard I was married in the Chapel of Saint George at Lissomol, Cyprus, on May 12th, 1191, to Berengaria of Navarre, daughter of Sancho VI, King of Navarre, and his queen, Beatrice of Castile. Queen Berengaria was born in Béarn, Navarre, sometime around 1164 and she died at the Abbey l'Espan in Anjou, where she had taken the veil as a nun, sometime around 1230. Her body was initially interred there, but was moved in 1821 on the orders of King Louis XVIII of France to be re-buried in the Cathedral of St.-Julien in Le Mans.
King Richard never fathered a child with either queen or a mistress. It is highly unlikely on geographical grounds that he was the biological father of two children sometimes accredited to him, including Philip, Seigneur de Cognac.
RICHARD I was succeeded by his youngest brother, JOHN.
(Reigned April 6th, 1189 - October 19th, 1216)
Sometimes known as "John Lack-Land," "John Soft-Sword" or "Bad King John"
Son of Henry II, King of England, and his queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine
Pre-regnal titles: He held the courtesy title of "King of Ireland" from 1177, Count of Mortain (1189), Earl of Gloucester suo uxoris (1199)
Born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, on Christmas Eve, 1164
Died at Newark Castle, Lincoln, on October 19th, 1216
Buried in Worcester Cathedral, properly called the Cathedral Church of Christ and Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester
John was married, whilst still Count of Mortain, at Marlborough Castle on August 29th, 1189 to Isobel of Gloucester, daughter and heiress of William, Earl of Gloucester, and his wife, Lady Hawise (née de Beaumont). Isobel was born on one of her father's estates sometime around 1176 and she died of natural causes during the winter of 1217. The marriage of John and Isobel was declared legally invalid on grounds of consanguinity on August 30th, 1199. She is buried in Canterbury Cathedral.
John was married for the second time at Bordeaux Castle on August 24th, 1100 to Isabelle of Angoulême, daughter of Aymer, Comte d'Angoulême, and his wife Alice (née de Courtenay), a granddaughter of Louis VI, King of France. Queen Isabelle was born in France sometime around 1187 and she died of natural causes at Fontevrault Abbey on May 31st, 1246, where she was subsequently buried.
Issue of the Marriage of John and Isabelle of Angoulême: -
1. HENRY III, King of England (1207 - 1272). He married Eleanor of Provence and had issue.
2. RICHARD, King of the Romans (1209 - 1272). He married Isabella, Dowager Countess of Hertford, and had issue. After her death, he married Sanchia of Provence and also had issue. After her death, he married thirdly to Beatrice von Falkenburg.
3. JOAN, Queen of Scots (1210 - 1238). She married Alexander II, King of Scots.
4. ISABELLA, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Sicily (1214 - 1241). She married Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, and had issue.
5. ELEANOR, Countess of Pembroke (1215 - 1275). She married firstly William, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. After his death, she became Countess of Leicester thanks to her marriage to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, with whom she had issue. Following his death in battle, she took the veil at Montargis Abbey in France.
Issue of King John's affair with Mrs. Clementina Pinel: -
i. Joan, Princess of Wales (died 1237). She married Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, and had issue.
Issue of King John's liaison with Hawise de Tracy: -
ii. Oliver (killed at the Battle of Damietta in modern-day Egypt in 1290)
Issue of King John's affairs with various unknown women: -
iii. Richard Fitzjohn, Baron Chilham. He married Lady Rohese of Dover and had issue.
iv. Osbert Gifford (died 1216)
v. Geoffrey FitzRoy (died 1205)
vi. Sir John Fitzjohn (died 1242)
vii. Odo FitzRoy (died 1242)
viii. Richard, Constable of Wallingford Castle
ix. Henry Fitzjohn
x. Matilda, Abbess of Barking Convent
xi. Isabella la Blanche
At the time of his death in 1216, King John was survived by both of his wives - his ex-wife, Isobel, and his queen, Isabelle. Isobel had re-married after the annulment of her marriage to John, becoming Countess of Essex and Sussex thanks to her marriage to Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex and Sussex. After his death, she married for a third time to Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, to whom she was married at the time of her death in 1217. There was no offspring from any of her marriages.
Queen Isabelle re-married to Hugh de Lusignan, Comte de la Marche, and had issue.
JOHN was succeeded by his eldest son, HENRY III.
(Reigned October 19th, 1216 - November 16th, 1272)
It was during King Henry's reign that England's formal union and claim to the Duchy of Normandy, which had existed since 1066, was renounced under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1259.)
Son of John, King of England, and his queen, Isabelle of Angoulême
Born in Winchester Castle on October 1st, 1207
Died at the Palace of Westminster on November 16th, 1272
Buried in Westminster Abbey
Henry III was married in Canterbury Cathedral on January 14th, 1236 to Eleanor of Provence, daughter of Raymond Berenger, Comte de Provence, and his wife, Beatrice of Savoy. Queen Eleanor was born at Aix-en-Provence in France, sometime around 1223, and she died of natural causes at Amesbury Abbey, where she had taken the veil as a nun on June 25th, 1291, where she was subsequently buried.
Issue of the Marriage between Henry III and Eleanor of Provence: -
1. EDWARD I, King of England (1239 - 1307). He married twice - firstly to Eleanor of Castile and after her death to Marguerite of France. There was issue from both marriages.
2. MARGARET, Queen of Scots (1240 - 1275). She married Alexander III, King of Scots, and had issue, including the future queen-consort of Norway.
3. BEATRICE, Duchess of Brittany (1242 - 1275). She married twice - firstly to John de Montfort, Earl of Richmond, and after his death to Jean II, Duke of Brittany, with whom she had issue.
4. EDMUND, Earl of Leicster and claimant to the throne of Sicily (1245 - 1296). He married twice - firstly to Lady Aveline Fortibus, Countess of Aumale, and after her death, he married Blanche of Artois, Queen Mother of Navarre, by whom he had issue.
5. RICHARD (?1247 - 1256)
6. JOHN (?1250 - 1256)
7. WILLIAM (?1251 - 1256)
8. KATHERINE (1252 - 1257)
9. HENRY (born and died young)
HENRY III was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward I.
(Reigned November 16th, 1272 - July 7th, 1307)
Sometimes known as "Edward Longshanks" or "Edward, Hammer of the Scots"
It was during King Edward's reign that Wales was conquered and became part of the same monarchy as England
Son of Henry III, King of England, and his queen, Eleanor of Provence
Pre-regnal titles: Duke of Gascony and Earl of Chester (1254)
Born at the Palace of Westminster in June 1239
Died on military campaign in Northumberland on July 7th, 1307
Buried in Westminster Abbey
Edward I was married, whilst still Duke of Gascony, at the Abbey of Las Huelgas in Burgos, Castile, in October 1254 to Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile, and his queen, Jeanne d'Aumale. Queen Eleanor was born in her father's kingdom, either in 1244 or 1245, and she died of natural causes at Herby Manor, Nottinghamshire, on November 28th, 1290. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Edward I married for a second time in Canterbury Cathedral in September 1299 to Marguerite of France, daughter of Philippe III, King of France, and his queen, Marie of Brabant. Queen Marguerite was born in Paris, some time around 1279, and she died of natural causes either in 1317 or 1318. She was buried at Greyfriars Church in London, but her tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.
Issue of the Marriage of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile: -
1. ELEANOR, Queen of Aragon (died 1298). She married twice - firstly to Alfonso III, King of Aragon, and after his death, Henry III, Count of Bar, with whom she had issue.
2. JOANNA (born and died 1265)
3. JOHN (1266 - 1272)
4. HENRY (1267 - 1274)
5. JULIANA (born and died 1271)
6. JOAN, Countess of Gloucester and of Hertford (1272 - 1307). She married twice - firstly to Lord Gilbert de Clare, 3rd Earl of Gloucester and 7th Earl of Hertford, with whom she had issue. After his death, she married Lord Ralph de Monthermer, Earl of Atholl, with whom she also had issue.
7. ALFONSO, Earl of Chester (1273 - 1284)
8. MARGARET, Duchess of Brabant (1275 - 1318). She married Johann the Peaceful, Duke of Brabant, with whom she had issue.
9. BERENICE (1276 - 1279)
10. ISABELLA (born and died 1279)
11. ELIZABETH, Countess of Holland and Zeeland (1282 - 1316). She married twice - firstly to Johann I, Count of Holland and Zeeland, and after his death, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Essex, with whom she had issue.
12. EDWARD II, King of England (1284 - 1327). He married Isabella of France and had issue.
13. BEATRICE (born and died 1286)
14. BLANCHE (born and died 1289)
Issue of the Marriage between Edward I and Marguerite of France: -
1. THOMAS, Earl of Norfolk (1300 - 1338). He married twice - firstly to Alice Hales, a knight's daughter, with whom he had issue. After her death, he married Lady Mary Cobham.
2. EDMUND, Earl of Arundel (1301 - executed 1330). He married Margaret, Baroness Wake of Liddell, by whom he had issue.
3. ELEANOR (1306 - 1311).
On chronological grounds, it is unlikely that Edward I was the biological father of the Lord John Botetourt (died 1324.)
EDWARD I was succeeded by his son, EDWARD II.
(Reigned July 7th, 1307 - Deposed January 20th, 1327)
Son of Edward I, King of England, and his queen, Eleanor of Castile
Pre-regnal titles: Edward II was the first heir-to-the-throne to carry the title of "Prince of Wales," which subsequently became the traditional title reserved for England's heir-apparent, similar to the title of "Dauphin" in France and "Crown Prince" in various other nations. He carried the title, and that of Earl of Chester, from 1301; he was also Count of Ponthieu and Mortain from 1290 and Duke of Aquitaine from 1306.
Born at Caernarvon Castle, Wales, on April 25th, 1284
Murdered at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, presumably on September 21st, 1327
Buried in Gloucester Cathedral, properly called the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity
Edward II was married in Boulogne Cathedral, France, in January 1308 to Isabella of France, daughter of Philippe IV, King of France and Jeanne I, Queen of Navarre. Queen Isabella was born in Paris, some time around 1293, and she died of natural causes at Castle Rising in Norfolk on August 22nd, 1358. She was buried in Greyfriars Church, London, but her tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.
Issue of the Marriage of Edward II and Isabella of France: -
1. EDWARD III, King of England (1312 - 1377). He married Philippa of Hainault and had issue.
2. JOHN, Earl of Cornwall (1316 - 1336)
3. ELEANOR, Countess of Gueldres and Zutphen (1318 - 1355). She married Reginald II, Count of Gueldres and Zutphen, with whom she had issue.
4. JOAN, Queen of Scots (1321 - 1362). She married David II, King of Scots.
It is fundamentally unlikely that Edward II was the biological father of an illegitimate child called Adam.
EDWARD II was deposed, forced to abdicate and then murdered in favour of, but not on the orders of, his son, EDWARD III.
(Reigned January 20th, 1307 - June 21st, 1377)
Son of Edward II, King of England, and his queen, Isabella of France
Pre-regnal titles: Earl of Chester (1312), Count of Ponthieu and Count of Montreuil, then Duke of Aquitaine (1325)
Born at Windsor Castle on November 13th, 1312
Died following a stroke at Sheen Palace on June 21st, 1377
Buried in Westminster Abbey
Edward III was married at York Minster on January 24th, 1328, to Philippa of Hainault, daughter of Wilhelm the Good, Count of Hainault and Holland, and his wife, Jeanne de Valois. Queen Philippa was born sometime around 1314, probably in Holland, and she died of natural causes on the Feast of the Assumption 1369 at Windsor Castle. She is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Issue of the Marriage of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault: -
1. EDWARD, Prince of Wales (1330 - 1376.) He married Joan, Countess of Kent, and had issue, including the future king, Richard II.
2. ISABELLA, Comtesse de Soissons (1332 - 1382.) She married Enguerrand de Coucy, Comte de Soissons and Earl of Bedford, with whom she had issue.
3. JOAN (1335 - 1348.)
4. WILLIAM (born and died 1337)
5. LIONEL, Duke of Clarence (1338 - 1368.) He married twice - firstly to Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, by whom he had issue and after her death, Yolanda Visconti, daughter of the Duke of Milan.
6. JOHN, Duke of Lancaster and claimant to the thrones of Castile and León (1340 - 1399.) He married three times - firstly to Lady Blanche of Lancaster, by whom he had issue, including the future king, Henry IV. After her death, his second wife was Princess Constanza of Castile, via whom John acquired his controversial claim to two thrones in the Iberian peninsula. Their marriage had offspring. Finally, after Constanza's death, he married Lady Katherine Swynford, by whom he had already had issue.
7. EDMUND, Duke of York (1341 - 1402.) He married twice - firstly to Princess Isabella of Castile, his elder brother's sister-in-law, by whom he had issue, and after her death, he married Lady Joan Holland.
8. BLANCHE (born and died 1342.)
9. MARY, Duchess of Brittany (1344 - 1362.) She married Jean IV, Duke of Brittany.
10. MARGARET, Countess of Pembroke (1346 - 1361.) She married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.
11. THOMAS (1347 - 1348.)
12. WILLIAM (born and died 1348)
13. THOMAS, Duke of Gloucester (1355 - murdered 1397.) He married Lady Eleanor de Bohun, by whom he had issue.
Issue of King Edward's affair with Alice Perrers: -
i. Sir John de Southeray (1365 - 1384.) He married Lady Matilda Percy.
ii. Joan, who married Mr. Robert Skerne and had issue.
iii. Jane, who married Mr. Robert Northland.
On chronological grounds, it is highly unlikely that King Edward was the biological father of Nicholas Lytlington, the future Abbot of Westminster.
EDWARD III was succeeded by his grandson, RICHARD II.
(Reigned June 21st, 1377 - Deposed August 19th, 1399)
Son of Edward, Prince of Wales and his wife, Joan, Countess of Kent
Pre-regnal titles: Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Earl of Cornwall (1376)
Born in Bordeaux, France, in January 1366
Murdered at Pontefract Castle in the early months of 1400
Buried initially in the parish church of King's Langley in Hertfordshire, but later re-buried in Westminster Abbey on the orders of King Henry V
Richard II was married at the Palace of Westminster in January 1382 to Anne of Bohemia, daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV, and his empress, Elisabeth of Pomerania. Queen Anne was born in Prague on May 11th, 1366 and she died during an outbreak of the plague at Sheen Palace on June 7th, 1394. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Richard II was married for the second time in Saint Nicholas's Church, Calais, in November 1396 to Isabelle de Valois, daughter of Charles VI, King of France, and his queen, Isabelle of Ingolstadt-Bavaria. Queen Isabelle was born in the Louvre on November 9th, 1389 and she died in childbirth at the Château de Blois on September 13th, 1409. She was initially buried in the Abbey of St.-Laumer in Blois, but her remains were later removed to the Church of the Celestines in Paris.
It is fundamentally unlikely on chronological grounds that Richard II could have been the father of the young man known as Richard Maudelyn.
At the time of his murder, King Richard was survived by his second wife, Isabelle de Valois, who subsequently married Charles, Duc d'Orléans, with whom she had issue.
By the time of his murder, RICHARD II had already been forcibly succeeded by his cousin, HENRY IV.